# Intika Android Dev #

Paranoid Android Wiki
http://www.paranoid-rom.com/

Paranoid Android is one of the more colorful ROMs that has been making its way around the forums in recent months. We’ve brought you news of the hybrid ROM coming out on several devices already, but the ROM seems to be heading everywhere. It is a very unique ROM, the first truly hybrid phone / tablet ROM experiences for most devices. Unlike ROMs that have tablet mode, ParanoidAndroid uses P.A.L. and P.A.D. (Per-App-Layout and Per-App-Density, respectively) to allow users to set each application’s DPI and layout.

The latest devices to get this unique ROM are the CDMA and GSM versions of the HTC One V. The first of the two versions to get it was the GSM version, posted by XDA Senior Member 1ceb0x, with the help of a few others. From there, XDA Forum Member salvy512 ported it to the CDMA version with the help of other members and devs.

Both ROMs are quite stable, with only a couple of issues. For the CDMA version, the only two things that don’t work properly are Bluetooth—which doesn’t work at all—and a notification light bug that only happens while the device is charging. For the GSM, the only issue is the Bluetooth issue. The reason for the Bluetooth issue is because it happens to be a bug on the local CM9 port, upon which the ROMs were based. Once CM9 gets Bluetooth fixes, the ParanoidAndroid ROMs should join the Bluetooth party as well. If you can handle not having Bluetooth, the ROMs are stable enough to use as daily drivers, and anyone who wants to check out the unique hybrid mode should definitely do so. It is pretty cool.

For additional info, check out the CDMA thread or the GSM thread.


From ParanaoidAndroid dev. team. :


"
To be honest, this is not tablet mode at all, it has nothing to do with silly build.prop hacks.

This is the first and only Android rom to feature true Hybrid mode.
This rom lets you scale and project every app, every widget, even systemcomponents individually.
Remember, android is modular, everything is an app: Lockscreen, navigationbar, dialogs, popups, keyboards, widgets, and your regular apps of course.
Apps have the capability to switch into various designs or layouts according to the device they run on.
This can result in a complete new experience as many apps will transform to the better.

Now for every element that you like chose a mode (PhoneUI, Phablet/Nexus-7UI, TabletUI) and/or a size.
You are 100% independent of the system DPI which runs nicely in whatever value it has been assigned to.
You do not need to boot your phone into a certain DPI. Neither will most of the changes you apply require a reboot.
You will not suffer from the myriads of troubles which normally haunt you under build.prop tablet mode.
Your market, phone, etc. will all work, apps won't shrink on you unless you shrink them yourself.
This project will entirely transform your device, but retain the aesthetics and the feel of your phone."

"This is not just a tablet mode"





Android Wiki

Android is a Linux-based operating system primarily designed for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers utilizing ARM processors. A secondary target for the light weight OS is embedded systems such as networking equipment, smart TV systems including set top boxes and built in systems and various devices as varied as house hold appliances and wrist watches. Most embedded applications are for ARM based devices but notably Google's Google TV devices use Intel chips with the x86 version of Android. The x86 processor architecture is also utilized, to a lesser extent, in traditional personal computer applications most notably with netbooks and, rarely, laptops and desktops. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google.[2]

Google financially backed the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., and later purchased it in 2005.[8] The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.[9] Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the Apache License.[10] The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android.[11]

Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java.[12] Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Google Play (formerly Android Market), the app store run by Google. In June 2012, there were more than 600,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play was 20 billion.[13]

Android became the world’s leading smartphone platform at the end of 2010.[14] For the first quarter of 2012, Android had a 59% smartphone market share worldwide.[15] At the half of 2012, there were 400 million devices activated and 1 million activations per day.[16] Analysts point to the advantage to Android of being a multi-channel, multi-carrier OS.[17]


History

Foundation

Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger),[18] Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.),[19] Nick Sears[20] (once VP at T-Mobile),[21] and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV)[8] to develop, in Rubin's words "...smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".[8] Despite the obvious past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones.[8] That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company.[22]

Google acquisition

Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005, making Android Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary of Google. Key employees of Android Inc., including Andy Rubin, Rich Miner and Chris White, stayed at the company after the acquisition.[8] Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time of the acquisition, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move.[8]

At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part.[23][24][25]

Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006.[26] Reports from the BBC and The Wall Street Journal noted that Google wanted its search and applications on mobile phones and it was working hard to deliver that. Print and online media outlets soon reported rumors that Google was developing a Google-branded handset. Some speculated that as Google was defining technical specifications, it was showing prototypes to cell phone manufacturers and network operators.

In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony.[27][28]

Open Handset Alliance

On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of several companies which include Broadcom Corporation, Google, HTC, Intel, LG, Marvell Technology Group, Motorola, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Texas Instruments unveiled itself. The goal of the Open Handset Alliance is to develop open standards for mobile devices.[9] On the same day, the Open Handset Alliance also unveiled their first product, Android, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6.[9]

On December 9, 2008, 14 new members joined, including ARM Holdings, Atheros Communications, Asustek Computer Inc, Garmin Ltd, Huawei Technologies, PacketVideo, Softbank, Sony Ericsson, Toshiba Corp, and Vodafone Group Plc.[29][30]

Android Open Source Project

The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is led by Google, and is tasked with the maintenance and development of Android.[31] According to the project "The goal of the Android Open Source Project is to create a successful real-world product that improves the mobile experience for end users."[32] AOSP also maintains the Android Compatibility Program, defining an "Android compatible" device "as one that can run any application written by third-party developers using the Android SDK and NDK", to prevent incompatible Android implementations.[32] The compatibility program is also optional and free of charge, with the Compatibility Test Suite also free and open-source.[33]

Version history

Design

Android consists of a kernel based on the Linux kernel 2.6, with middleware, libraries and APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik dex-code (Dalvik Executable), which is usually translated from Java bytecode.[35]

The main hardware platform for Android is the ARM architecture. There is support for x86 from the Android x86 project,[6] and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android.

Linux

Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel and has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle.[36] Android does not have a native X Window System by default nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android.[37]

Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called wakelocks, were rejected by mainline kernel developers, partly because kernel maintainers felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain their own code.[38][39][40] Even though Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community,[41] Greg Kroah-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux.[39] Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process", because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.[42]

However, in September 2010, Linux kernel developer Rafael J. Wysocki added a patch that improved the mainline Linux wakeup events framework. He said that Android device drivers that use wakelocks can now be easily merged into mainline Linux, but that Android's opportunistic suspend features should not be included in the mainline kernel.[43][44] In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".[45]

In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3.[46] further integration being expected for Linux Kernel 3.4.[47]


Uses

While Android is designed primarily for smartphones and tablets, the open and customizable nature of the operating system allows it to be used on other electronics, including laptops and netbooks, smartbooks,[63] ebook readers,[64] and smart TVs (Google TV). Further, the OS has seen niche applications on wristwatches,[65] headphones,[66] car CD and DVD players,[67] smart glasses (Project Glass), refrigerators, vehicle satnav systems, home automation systems, games consoles, mirrors,[68] cameras,[69] portable media players[70] landlines,[71] and treadmills.[72]

The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.[73] In early 2010 Google collaborated with HTC to launch its flagship[74] Android device, the Nexus One. This was followed later in 2010 with the Samsung-made Nexus S and in 2011 with the Galaxy Nexus.

iOS and Android 2.3.3 'Gingerbread' may be set up to dual boot on a jailbroken iPhone or iPod Touch with the help of OpeniBoot and iDroid.[75][76]

In December 2011 it was announced the Pentagon has officially approved Android for use by its personnel.[77][78][79]


Applications

Applications are usually developed in the Java language using the Android Software Development Kit, but other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks.

Applications can be acquired by end-users either through a store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site.[80]

Google Play

Google Play is an online software store developed by Google for Android devices. An application program ("app") called "Play Store" is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to browse and download apps published by third-party developers, hosted on Google Play. As of June 2012, there were more than 600,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store exceeded 20 billion[13]. The operating system itself is installed on 400 million total devices.[16]

Only devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements are allowed to preinstall and access the Play Store.[81] The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons.[82]

Google offers many free applications in the Play Store including Google Voice, Google Goggles, Gesture Search, Google Translate, Google Shopper, Listen and My Tracks. In August 2010, Google launched "Voice Actions for Android",[83] which allows users to search, write messages, and initiate calls by voice.

Security

Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the operating system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, the Play Store displays all required permissions. A game may need to enable vibration, for example, but should not need to read messages or access the phonebook. After reviewing these permissions, the user can decide whether to install the application.[84] The sandboxing and permissions system weakens the impact of vulnerabilities and bugs in applications, but developer confusion and limited documentation has resulted in applications routinely requesting unnecessary permissions, reducing its effectiveness.[85] The complexity of inter-application communication implies Android may have opportunities to run unauthorized code.[86]

Several security firms have released antivirus software for Android devices, in particular, Lookout Mobile Security,[87] AVG Technologies,[88] Avast!,[89] F-Secure,[90] Kaspersky,[91] McAfee[92] and Symantec.[93] This software is ineffective as sandboxing also applies to such applications, limiting their ability to scan the deeper system for threats.[94]

Privacy

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Latitude, Places, and to deliver location-based ads.[95]

Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid,[96] an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.[97]

In March 2012 it was revealed that Android Apps can copy photos without explicit user permission,[98] Google responded they "originally designed the Android photos file system similar to those of other computing platforms like Windows and Mac OS. [...] we're taking another look at this and considering adding a permission for apps to access images. We've always had policies in place to remove any apps [on Google Play] that improperly access your data."[99]





           
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Intika 12-2012
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